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Moxyland by Lauren Beukes

Moxyland by Lauren BeukesReview: Moxyland by Lauren Beukes (Angry Robot, 2010)

Set in South Africa a mere few decades hence, Moxyland is an intoxicating tale of greed, rebellion, betrayal, hedonism and hope, all wrapped up in a smothering blanket of state control and corporate oppression. This future world is a bleak, dismal place. Despite the promises of ever-advancing technology and growing economies the gap between rich and poor constantly widens. Big business controls the planet, plastering every surface with advertising and holding the population to ransom through a Kafkan legal system, all the while aided and abetted by a government which views the majority of its citizens as near-worthless commodities.

The action follows four distinct narratives, each interlinked with the others and all spiralling towards the same inevitable conclusion. First up is Toby, an egotistical drop-out living on the cash advances of his estranged mother, blowing every penny on designer clothes and drugs and documenting every step for his blog. ┬áHis friend Tendenka is an activist, alarmed at the increasingly fascist nature of his adopted country and leading ever-more daring actions against the powers-that-be at the behest of the mysterious *skyward. Occasionaly aiding and abetting Tendenka through her access to certain corporate ivory towers is Lareto, a ruthless and ambitious corporate executive who views others a mere stepping stones on her journey to power. Finally we have Kendra a young artist who has transformed her entire body into a corporate billboard – nanotech implants give her flesh a green hue and render her addicted to her sponsor’s soft drink with the bonus of enhancing her natural physical abilities.

Moxyland drags these four characters together as Tendenka’s protests against the government advance from simply reprogramming billboards to sabotaging art exhibitions and beyond. His earnestness in acheiving his aims is matched only by his lack of comprehension of the potential outcomes. The threat de jour is disconnection, with offenders being cut off from any services requiring identification, i.e. nearly everything. Prior to outright disconnection comes ‘pacification’, with the police forces able to deliver massive and extended electrical charges to any miscreants via their mobile phones. But Tendenka doesn’t understand just how far the authorities will go to preserve order and protect their corporate backers. To Toby this is all a joke, something to pass the time until he decides which (if any) direction to take with his pleasure-soaked life. Kendra is dragged into all this by Toby, becoming the unwitting target of his affections. Lareto sits safely above the other three. Safe from such threats as disconnection she maneuvers her way through the world of business politics, dispensing favours to old friend Toby at Tendenka’s request. Which is of course the request of *skyward. And just who is *skyward anyway?

The debut novel of Lauren Beukes, whose wonderful The Shining Girls I reviewed at the Mountains Of Instead, Moxyland is a beautifully nihilistic portrayal of a world gone wrong. With its roots sunk firmly in the cyberpunk genre its gritty streets festooned with technological marvels bring to mind the very best of the genre, from Gibson to Dick to Stephenson. The concept of a future inhabited by a select few haves lording it over the legions of have-nots is well-worn but it’s seldom brought to life as vividly as Beukes manages. You can almost feel the grime under your fingerprints as you read thanks to her obsessive attention to detail and wonderful talent for fleshing out characters.

There is a true warmth at the heart of this novel, which may seem a surprise as it is drenched in despair, violence and deprivation from the outset. Make no mistake, there are no happy endings in Moxyland. This is no fairy tale and Beukes pulls no punches in delivering her warnings about the dangers of creeping corporate powers. And the great tragedy of Moxyland is that despite the oppressive environment which they inhabit, the eventual outcome is the result of her characters’ own flaws. Hubris, greed, naivete, narcissism – they all pile on top of each other until the whole world comes crashing down.

It’s no mean feat to craft an addictive page-turner from such apparently hopeless premises. However, and remember that this is a debut, Lauren Beukes has managed to do it. Moxyland is an effortless read, yet one which constantly forces you to think, to reassess your opinions and to challenge your ideas. It’s bloody lovely. And if you’ll excuse me, I’m off to soak it all in again.

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Filed under Cyberpunk, Dystopian, Noir, Science Fiction

Crux by Ramez Naam

Crux by Ramez NaamReview: Crux by Ramez Naam (Angry Robot, 2013)

Well I was planning to review Lauren Beukes’s rather stunning Moxyland, but seeing as I just finished this book a few nights ago and it hasn’t yet been published – thanks to Angry Robot for the advance copy – it’s jumping to the head of the queue. Straight off the bat, if you haven’t read Nexus, the precursor to Crux, then there may be little bits of spoiler in here for you. If you have no idea what Nexus is then go read my review, buy it, love it and get Crux on your wishlist.

In Nexus, Ramez Naam constructed a near-future world in which neuroscience has advanced to a remarkable degree. Pioneers of the new technology combine drugs with nanotechnology to radically overhaul the brain’s operating system. This allows for rapid learning, shared experiences and a host of other benefits. Unfortunately, less scrupulous individuals have co-opted these new abilities to suit their own ends, such as turning otherwise normal people into utterly compliant sheep. The resulting furore resulted in international treaties criminalising much research and driving many of the new science’s pioneers underground.

One such pioneer, our hero Kade and his friends Rangan and Ilya, made massive improvements to a drug known as Nexus, finally allowing minds to combine, to communicate directly with each other. To the government though, and the newly formed ERD (Emerging Risks Directorate) in particular, Nexus represented a direct threat to humanity, allowing users to surpass the abilities of modified mankind and potentially resulting in an intra-species war. Infiltrating Kade’s group with a Nexus-modified agent, they blackmail him into turning over the secrets of Nexus and spying on the uncannily intelligent Shu-Yung Su, a leading Chinese neuroscience expert.

Things don’t go quite as planned…


Crux picks up the tale directly where Nexus left off. The ERD’s plan is in tatters. Their agent, Sam, has been turned against them by her own experiences of the beauty and hope which Nexus can offer. Kade has rigged Nexus with back doors which allow him to enter the minds of any users, subverting any ERD attempts to exercise control. He is protected by Feng, a member of the Confucian Fist, China’s first regiment of cloned, augmented super-soldiers. Shu-Yung, revealed to be an uploaded consciousness in a clone body and the first true posthuman, is alive following an ERD assassination attempt but her body did not survive. Instead her mind resides in a supercomputer far under a Shanghai university, raging against both the Americans who attempted to destroy her and the Chinese – including her husband – who now keep her imprisoned.

Elaborating on the disparate plot elements of Nexus, Crux branches off in yet more directions. In America there are the political assassinations being carried out by the PLF (Posthuman Liberation Front) against those in power who have stripped Nexus users of all rights as US citizens. Working within the administration, ostensibly against the PLF as well as Kade and his imprisoned friends, is Dr. Martin Holzmann, now a Nexus user himself and increasingly suffering under the weight of a guilty conscience. His guilt only increases further when he learns that the ERD is not only holding but is also torturing children born to Nexus users, born with the drug already augmenting their developing minds.

Meanwhile in Asia, Kade and Feng are constantly on the run from bounty hunters chasing the sizable cash reward offered by the US for their capture. Suddenly, offering some form of sanctuary, appears the transhuman guru, Shiva Pradash. He seeks Kade for his help to bring Nexus to the people of the world, to give humanity a helping hand on its way to what he sees as the next level of evolution. However, his fixation with gaining access to Kade’s back doors is more than a little troubling. Sam soon ends up on a collision course with them following her experiences tending for orphaned or unwanted Nexus children. And in Shanghai we learn of the true power of posthumans when Shu-Yung’s daughter Ling starts missing her mother a little too much.

So that’s the plot out of the way. How does it actually fare as a novel? Well if you read my Nexus review you’ll know that I consider it a tough act to follow. Perhaps not surprisingly, Crux doesn’t quite hit the mark – but don’t be put off just yet. The two major problems with Crux are slightly contradictory. First off is the pacing. Where Nexus rattled along at breakneck speed from start to finish, Crux seems to constantly get bogged down in details. It’s not so much that there is a lack of action and plot development, it’s just that every vaguely important point is hammered home repeatedly until you’re sick of hearing about it. This detracts from the story itself in a noticeable way and didn’t seem to me to be particularly necessary.

In contrast to the pace issue it seems to me like Naam is trying to cram too many elements into one story, concentrating too much on each individual strand and allowing the whole to suffer as a result. Crux ends up challenging the Song Of Ice And Fire series for the title of “Most Concurrent Threads In A Single Work” and falls into the same trap. By neglecting particular story arcs for too long they seem to have less impact when they return to the forefront.

But is it all bad? Well that’s a resounding “No!”. The technology and the study of its political and social implications remains as engaging as ever. Naam continues his exploration of the potential abuses of drugs like Nexus and delves ever deeper into the government’s possible reaction. Some may claim that his portrayal of the power-hungry and paranoid administration’s crackdown on Kade and his allies is overblown and heavy-handed but recent political events, from the reaction to 9/11 to the Snowden affair, paint a different picture. And far from becoming too biased in his handling of events he takes pains to ensure that he gives airtime to as many different viewpoints as possible. Kade, Sam, Shiva, Shu-Yung, Holzmann, and every other character has their own unique take on Nexus, on where it will lead and what the best moral response entails.

And despite my complaint about the pacing, it must be said that when action does erupt it does so in style. Naam seems to have refined his ability to depict everything from fistfights to full-on assaults. The book’s two action setpieces – furious attacks on a nightclub and an island fortress – erupt in gloriously chaotic and cinematic detail. It can be tricky to follow at times, verging on outright confusion, but this serves to create an even deeper authenticity, the literary equivalent of viewing the scene through the lens of a handheld camcorder. It may be shaky but it’s certainly intense.

To sum up, Crux may not quite live up to the extremely high standard of Nexus but it’s a close-run thing. The problems from which it suffers stem from a lack of judicious editing rather than the content itself and I would love to see a pared-down version with the unnecessary fat trimmed away. It offers a very satisfying continuation of the adventures in Nexus and paves the way for what will hopefully be a near-apocalyptic third installment.

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